Environment That Works On Water TreatmentPosted by: cooha | Posted on: October 6, 2015
Water in rivers or lakes is rarely clean enough for human consumption if its not first treated or purified. Groundwater too often needs some level of treatment to render it potable. The primary objective of water treatment is to protect the health of the community. Potable water must, of course be free of harmful microorganism and chemical. But public supplies should also be aesthetically desirable so that consumers will not be tempted to use water from other attractive but unprotected sources. The water should be crystal clear, with almost no turbidity, and it should be free of objectional colour odour and taste. For domestic supplies, water should not be corrosive, nor should it deposit troublesome amounts of scale and strains on plumbing fixture.
Many industries provide special treatment on their own premises.
The type and extent of treatment required to obtain potable water depends on the quality of the sources. The better the quality, the less treatment is needed. Surface water usually needs more extensive treatment than groundwater, because most streams, rivers and lakes are polluted to some extents. Even areas remote from human populations, surface water contains suspended silt, organic material, decaying vegetation and microbes from animal wastes. Groundwater on the other hand, is usually free of microbes and suspended solids because of natural filtration as the water moves through soil, though it often contains relatively high concentrations of dissolved minerals from its direct contact with soil and rock.
Basic Steps in the Treatment of Water
Water is treated in a variety of physical and chemical methods. Treatment of surface water begins with intake screens to prevent fish and debris from entering the plant and the damaging pumps and other components. Conventional treatment of water primarily involves clarification and disinfection. Clarification removes most of the turbidity, making the water crystal clear. Disinfection, usually the final step in the treatment of drinking water, destroys pathogenic microbes.
Groundwater does not often need clarification, but it should be disinfected as a precaution to protect public health. In addition to clarification and disinfection, the processes of softening, aeration, carbon absorption, and fluoridation may be used for certain public water sources. Desalination processes are used in areas where freshwater supplies are not readily available.
Solid Waste Management
Material that is discarded because it has served its purpose or is no longer useful is called solid waste. Improper disposal of municipal solid waste can create unsanitary conditions, and these conditions in turn can lead to pollution of the environment and outbreaks of vector-borne disease, that is, diseases spread by rodents and insects.
The tasks of collecting, treating and disposing of solid waste present complex technical challenges. They also pose a wide variety of administrative and economic problems that must be managed. Use of gray-water recycling systems in new commercial buildings offers methods of saving water and reducing total sewage volumes. These systems filter and chlorinate drainage from tubs and sinks and reuse the water for non-potable purposes e.g flushing toilets.
by: John Owo